Type 2 Diabetes: Prediction and Prevention (Wiley Practical Diabetes Series)

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The literature has shown that T2DM self-care management programs have a positive impact on self-care behaviors, as well as health outcomes, even with a lack of consensus on the best approach. Standardization of these programs is needed in T2DM, but the inclusion of self-care for associated comorbidities and complications also needs deeper examination by program developers. Future research should examine the effects of a standardized foot self-care program across multiple populations and intervention sites that focuses on the reduction of complications associated with a T2DM diagnosis.

This potential intervention has the ability to expand the scope of DSME to not only include foot care, but also other complications associated with this condition.

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The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest nor was any funding made available for this study. The primary author has full control of all primary data, which may be assessed by contacting the corresponding author. Bonner takes full responsibility for the work as a whole. Adapted from Shekelle et al. Adapted from Vandenbroucke et al. An explanation and elaboration article discusses each checklist item and gives methodological background and published examples of transparent reporting.

Skip to Main Content. Search in: This Journal Anywhere. Advanced search. Journal homepage. Article: Received 14 Sep Review Articles. Type 2 diabetes—related foot care knowledge and foot self-care practice interventions in the United States: a systematic review of the literature. Introduction The purpose of this systematic literature review is to review published studies on foot care knowledge and foot care practice interventions as part of diabetic foot care self-management interventions.

Conclusion Preventing these complications, understanding the risk factors, and having the ability to manage complications outside of the clinical encounter is an important part of a diabetes foot self-care management program. Methods Data sources This systematic review contains research studies of foot care knowledge and foot care practices interventions. Study selection Two investigators TJB and ESL , independently reviewed publications by title and abstract according to the above mentioned criteria by rating the studies with a yes or no. Type 2 diabetes—related foot care knowledge and foot self-care practice interventions in the United States: a systematic review of the literature All authors.

1: Epidemiology and prevention of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome

Published online: 17 February CSV Display Table. Data extraction Data abstraction was conducted by one investigator TJB using the procedures in Garrard's method of literature review 17 Garrard J. Results The literature search identified 1, articles. Display full size. Data synthesis Thirty-one studies were represented within this review. Discussion In this systematic review, foot care interventions were analyzed between and Importance of foot care practices on health outcomes Proper foot self-care behaviors can reduce the risk of injury, infection, and amputation in someone with an at-risk foot 37 Scollan-Koliopoulos M , Walker EA , Bleich D.

Importance of foot care education interventions on health outcomes Foot injuries and ulceration have been associated with poor T2DM-related foot care knowledge and foot self-care skills 29 Jordan DN , Jordan JL. Strengths and limitations This systematic literature review is a comprehensive examination of foot self-care knowledge and practice interventions conducted within the United States, solely on individuals with T2DM.

Conclusion and future implications The literature has shown that T2DM self-care management programs have a positive impact on self-care behaviors, as well as health outcomes, even with a lack of consensus on the best approach. Conflict of interest and funding The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest nor was any funding made available for this study. Acknowledgements The primary author has full control of all primary data, which may be assessed by contacting the corresponding author.

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Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice - Journal - Elsevier

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Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice

Published online: 19 Feb Wararom Kanchanasamut et al. Published online: 20 Feb Neal R. Barshes et al. Published online: 10 Oct Published online: 7 Dec Evidence for meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Evidence from at least one randomized, controlled trial. Evidence from at least one controlled study without randomization. Evidence from at least one other type of quasi-experimental study nonrandomized. Evidence from non-experimental descriptive studies, such as comparative studies, correlation studies, and case-controlled studies. Evidence from expert committee reports or opinions or clinical experience of respected authorities.

Explain the scientific background and rationale for the investigation being reported. State specific objectives, including any prespecified hypotheses. Present key elements of study design early in the paper.

Describe the setting, locations, and relevant dates, including periods of recruitment, exposure, follow-up, and data collection. Case-control study — give the eligibility criteria and the sources and methods of case ascertainment and control selection.


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Give the rationale for the choice of cases and controls. Cross-sectional study — give the eligibility criteria and the sources and methods of selection of participants. Case-control study — for matched studies, give matching criteria and the number of controls per case. Clearly define all outcomes, exposures, predictors, potential confounders, and effect modifiers.

Give diagnostic criteria, if applicable. For each variable of interest, give sources of data and details of methods of assessment measurement. Describe comparability of assessment methods if there is more than one group. Describe any efforts to address potential sources of bias.

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Explain how quantitative variables were handled in the analyses. If applicable, describe which groupings were chosen and why.


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Case-control study — if applicable, explain how matching of cases and controls was addressed. Cross-sectional study — if applicable, describe analytical methods taking account of sampling strategy.

Cohort study — report numbers of outcome events or summary measures over time. Case-control study — report numbers in each exposure category, or summary measures of exposure. Cross-sectional study — report numbers of outcome events or summary measures.

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